Focalization is the point of view of where the story/character is shown from. There are many different levels of focalization where you can see the point of view either internally, from the first person view of the character, seeing what the character actually sees, or externally which is told from a third person narrator, who has a viewpoint from the outside looking in. The importance and impact of focalization drastically allows the reader to either see from the characters eyes, which puts you in their situation, their body and brings you along with them. When you get the external view of watching the character perform and behave, you get a different outside look at them.
A flat character is one that doesn’t develop throughout the story. It’s usually a stock character where they play a typical role of a stereotype for example, a clown, college kid, nerd, etc. A flat character is also known as a static persona. A round character does develop throughout the course of the story and are also labeled as dynamic, powerhouse characters. The voice in a flat character is weak, where the voice in a round character is stronger. Some flat characters are Sagovia, Maruquita’s father, and the nurse and niece in Don Quixote. Some round characters are Ofelia, Don Quixote, Sancho Panza, Omaha Bigelow, Maruquita, and Flaquita.